According to the Social Benefits for Disabled Persons Act, disability is the loss of or an abnormality in an anatomical, physiological or mental structure or function of a person which in conjunction with different relational and environmental restrictions prevents participation in social life on equal bases with the others.
The state provides a number of benefits and discounts to support the ability of disabled persons to cope independently, social integration and equal opportunities and to promote studies and work. Benefits and services are provided by the Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund and local governments.
Many service providers offer discounts to disabled persons (e.g. public transport, cultural events). In order to provide the necessary services, benefits and discounts to disabled persons, it is necessary to apply for the determination of the disability and its degree of severity. The disability is determined by the Estonian National Social Insurance Board.
It is important to understand that:
Depending on age, a distinction is made between two groups of people when determining a disability:
According to the definition of a disabled person of working age, a person whose daily activities and participation in social life are difficult, limited or restricted has a disability. Daily activities and participation are considered to be, for example, the ability to communicate, mobility, as well as the ability to take care of oneself, do household activities, work, study, etc. A person of working age is a person aged 16 to 64.
When it comes to persons of working age, there are three degrees of severity of disability:
According to the definition of a disabled child or a disabled person of retirement age, a person who needs more personal assistance, guidance and supervision than their peers has a disability.
Personal assistance or guidance means the provision of assistance to persons who do not cope independently with eating, hygiene, clothing themselves, moving about or communicating. Supervision means the ensurance of safety regarding persons who, by act or omission, may constitute danger to the life, health or property of themselves or other persons.
When it comes to children or persons of retirement age, there are three degrees of severity of disability:
Read more on the website of the Estonian National Social Insurance Board:
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